Carl Friedrich **Gauss**, often rated the greatest mathematician of all time, played the market. On a salary of 1,000 thalers a year, Euler left an estate of 170,587 thalers in cash and securities. Nothing is known of **Gauss**'s investment methods.

— Part Three, Arbitrage, This Is Not the Time To Buy Stocks, p. 132

If we except the great name of Newton (and the exception is one that the great **Gauss** himself would have been delighted to make) it is probable that no mathematician of any age or country has ever surpassed **Gauss** in the combination of an abundant fertility of invention with an absolute vigorousness in demonstration...

— Henry John Stephen Smith as cited by the School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St Andrews in Scotland ( ).