Opportunity marries with circumstance and is midwife to the resultant bartering of public office. The mutuality is advantage to the parties involved merely facilitates the spread of such practices. When it reaches the point of being commonplace and is pragmatically perceived as the most practical means of getting things done, it has become systemic and difficult to eradicate.
The commerce of minds was necessarily the first commerce in the world, ... since before bartering things one must barter signs, and it is necessary therefore that signs be instituted. There is no market or exchange without language. The first instrument of all commerce is language.paul valéry
The most simple of all trade, is that which is carried on by bartering the necessary articles of subsistence...draw from it his food, and the surplus will be the object of barter: he will give this in exchange to any one who will supply his other wants... and the more free hands are required, the more surplus food must be produced by additional labour, to supply their demand.
when we see a woman bartering her beauty for gold, we look upon such a one as no other than a common prostitute ; but she who rewards the passion of some worthy youth with it, gains at the same time our approbation and esteem .