The cybernetics phase of cognitive science produced an amazing array of concrete results, in addition to its long-term (often underground) influence:
the use of mathematical logic to understand the operation of the nervous system;
the invention of information processing machines (as digital computers), thus laying the basis for artificial intelligence;
the establishment of the metadiscipline of system theory, which has had an imprint in many branches of science, such as engineering (systems analysis, control theory), biology (regulatory physiology, ecology), social sciences (family therapy, structural anthropology, management, urban studies), and economics (game theory);
information theory as a statistical theory of signal and communication channels;
the first examples of self-organizing systems.