Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1896? – 25 November 1997) was the President of Malawi from 1966 to 1994. His date of birth is uncertain but he trained as a doctor in the United States and in Scotland in the 1930s. After representing Nyasaland at the Pan-Africanist Congress he became known as a politician and returned to his homeland in 1958; he then led the Malawi Congress Party to victory in elections and became Prime Minister in 1963. When Malawi obtained independence, his rule became dictatorial, kleptocratic and corrupt; he was forced from office by foreign investors who demanded a referendum on democracy, which Banda lost.