French novelist, a pioneer of
naturalism. His novels include The re' se Raquin (1867) and the
great series called Les Rougon- Macquart, which depicts all
aspects of society under the Second Empire. After impeaching the military authorities over the Dreyfus case, Zola was sentenced to
imprisonment (1898), but escaped for a year to England, and
was welcomed back as a hero. He died in Paris,
accidentally suffocated by charcoal fumes.