During the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British occupation of Srinagar, colonial-style colleges, hospitals, and courts were constructed. In the downtown area of the city are less well-known residences, mosques, temples, hammams , and bazaars constructed in the local vernacular of timber and masonry architecture. Together, these buildings represent an unusually intact pre-modern urban environment.
By the first decade of the twentieth century, 125 newspapers and periodicals existed in the Presidency , of the total, 65 were under vernacular (Tamil, Telugu or Hindi) or bilingual publications. The city itself had 5 daily newspapers at that point, all English language; 3 (The Hindu, The Madras Standard, and The Indian Patriot) were published and edited by Indians .
With the exception of the Ojapali (this is one of the pre-Vaishnav dance forms that the Vaishnav culture drew from) inspired segments, which predate the establishment of Sattras, the dance form of Sattriya is mostly culled out of the Ankiya Bhaona tradition that has a distinct vernacular vocabulary for theatrical communication and a sense of regional identity.
The most important feature therefore of this dancer’s form is that its text is constantly evolving and gets ‘texted’ on the dancers body, and inspired by his immediate frame of reference. That is the reason why many of the hand gestures, central to Indian dance, have evolved from local traditions and bear vernacular names ( Hairi Haath , Mishing Bihu Haath , Chhatradhari Haath , Roja Haath , Mujura Haath and Rati Haath ). The same holds true of the gaits called Khoz , which go by names such as Balimahi (wagtail), Mukuti (egret) and Buguli (crane).
The obviously plagiarized historical argument of the Macedonian nationalists for a separate Macedonian ethnicity could be supported only by linguistic reality, and that worked against them until the 1940s. Until a modern Macedonian literary language was mandated by the socialist-led partisan movement from Macedonia in 1944, most outside observers and linguists agreed with the Bulgarians in considering the vernacular spoken by the Macedonian Slavs as a western dialect of Bulgarian.
The disquieting thing about newscaster-babble or editorial-speak is its ready availability as a serf idiom , a vernacular of deference.
The interaction and synthesis of men of religion with varying cultural back ground gave rise to a belief system of tolerance, accommodation, moderation and strict adherence to the principles of the great religion of Islam. This process of assimilation gave birth to a unique religious and secular architecture, represented by the Khanqah, mosque and vernacular houses. Though the city would be burnt, destroyed and rebuilt many times, yet in the end Srinagar survives as one of the representative intact cities of pre-modern vernacular and timber architecture.
The vernacular building and techniques are fast losing ground. These crafts have made great contribution to the traditional architecture in an Islamic city like Srinagar, Kashmir. The techniques included wood work in lattice range, pinjrakari , khatamb and ceilings, mud plasters as insulation, carved doors, designed windows, doors and windows.
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