The ancient Hindu philosophers stated as a fundamental truth that the world of our sense - experience is all illusion (maya), that change, plurality, and causation are not real, but there is one reality, God . This is metaphysical Monism of the idelalistic-spiritual type, tending towards mysticism .
The ancient Hindu philosophers stated as a fundamental truth that the world of our sense-experience is all illusion ( maya ), that change, plurality, and causation are not real, that there is but one reality, God. This is metaphysical Monism of the idealistic-spiritual type, tending towards mysticism .
What is so remarkable in all these theories and doctrines is their implicit Monism , the claim that behind the obvious multiplicity of the world’s appearances and, even more pertinently to our context, behind the obvious plurality of man’s faculties and abilities, there must exist a oneness the old hen pan , “the all is one” either a single source or a single ruler.
Pluralism and Monism, philosophical theories that answer “many” and “one,” respectively, to the distinct questions: how many kinds of things are there? and how many things are there? Different answers to each question are compatible, and the possible combination of views provide a popular way of viewing the history of philosophy.
The Bhagavadgita may be treated as a great synthesis of the ideas of the impersonal spiritual Monism with personalistic monotheism, of the yoga of action with the yoga of transcendence of action, and these again with yogas of devotion and knowledge.
...in Sikhism epistemological idealism also leads to metaphysical idealism. Sikhism starts with plurality of objects and ends in Monism. It evolves a comprehensive metaphysical system of absolute dynamic non-dualist view of the Reality.
In the context of Sikhism it [Metaphysical Monism] considers atman (spiritual element) and body (material element) as inseparable aspects of a single spiritual cosmic spiritual continuum.
It was my advanced research in physics that had started me on a spiritual quest. It culminated in me accepting the non-dualism or absolute Monism of Shankara as my philosophy of life and science.
The analogies Gandhi uses to describe God 's relationship to the world are ones that point to pantheism not Shankara 's transcendental Monism , or if John White's critique of Shankara is correct, a transcendental dualism.