The ultimate goal of human life is to attain spiritual perfection (moksha), or freedom from transmigration of the atman . The social existence of an individual is means for attaining this supreme goal. Since an individual cannot attain moksha without fulfilling his (her) individual and social duties, responsibilities and obligations, Hindu social philosophy...includes the essential social principles and practices, goals of human life: dharma (moral law), artha (wealth), kama (pleasure), and moksha (spiritual perfection, the ultimate goal).
Hinduism takes a comprehensive view of the human condition and classifies all the things people seek in the world and beyond into four broad categories called purushaarthas, kama , artha, dharma and moksha.
To attain moksha while alive, the individual consciousness must become non-existent because then there is nothing left in the mind . Then, due to the attainment of moksha, he becomes immersed forever in Pure Consciousness and the Liberated. One must live out his Dharma for the sake of others.
On the advent of Buddhism , Dharma was entirely neglected, and the path of moksha alone became predominant.
Man, the period of whose life is one hundred years, should practise Dharma , Artha, and Kama at different times and in such a manner that they may harmonize, and not clash in any way. He should acquire learning in his childhood; in his youth and middle age he should attend to Artha and Kama, and in his old age he should perform Dharma, and thus seek to gain moksha , that is, release from further transmigration.
The Hindu theory of reincarnation is based upon four basic principles: permanence of the atman , existence of maya (the original ignorance ), liberation ( moksha ) of the atman from samsara and the law of Karma .
moksha or Emancipation is not a product or effect of any action. That which is the product of anything is bound to be non-permanent ( anitya ) and as moksha is permanent and eternal , it cannot be supposed to be the resultant of anything; it is the realization of the self as it is by its nature, and this becomes possible only when the Karma of the Jiva has been exhausted.
Liberation or moksha for much Vedantic thought was not something that can be “reached” or “acquired". Since the atman is already there as the fundamental essence of the self is merely there to be experienced.
For Shankara , the path of jnana-yoga was the only one to moksha.
Some of the analogous words used to mean moksha are mukti, Nirvana, Turiya, Kaivalya, Apavarga, Nihsreyasa etc.
The term moksha primarily is in the description of purusharthas and is in classical as well as modem usage, and secondarily in a generic sense to denote all that is common to its variety of usages.
The word moksha does not occur in any of the Vedas though the base (root) MUC - is part of the vocabulary of the first Veda where it means 'to release, to let go'. But it occurs in the Brahmanas and is frequent in classical language.
Two hypotheses have been formulated to the concept of moksha: One is the fear of death that might have given rise to the concept of moksha and the other is the unjust state of affairs.
The ancient man's fear of death and his way of tackling it might have given rise to the idea of moksha with the concept getting more and more refined down the centuries.
The concept of moksha might have originated depending on how the humans tackled the problem of injustice and pessimism .
The Upanishadic conception of moksha consists in the removal of 'all fetters' which is avidyais and in the consequent awakening of the spirit to the true self which is non-different from brahman , The Absolute.
The second concept of moksha is taken from Buddhism , one of the unorthodox systems.
In most schools of Indian philosophy, the state moksha is conceived of in such a way that either there is no object left to be known, or if any object is allowed at all, no relationship of any kind, is permitted.
If we die , shall we cease to live ? The widespread belief in the immortality of soul and therefore the belief in moksha are problematic for the philosopher .
If the immortality of soul is not beyond doubt, the existence of moksha cannot logically be proved either.
One of the universally accepted ideas regarding the relationship between moksha and Indian philosophy is that Indian philosophy is spiritual and that moksha is its main concern - it is the focal concern.
Our belief in moksha is very ancient existing years before the christian era...moksha is a pre-Aryna concept found in Sramana culture and later got assimilated in the Upanishads .
The relationship between moksha and the Indian philosophy is not integral in the sense that the one is not intelligible without the other.
The ideal of moksha was achieved in India as early as the Upanishadic and Buddhist times, whereas, philosophic reflection has not stopped with it; it has continued till today.
moksha is not just freedom from the cycle of rebirths , as is often misunderstood.
moksha or freedom is the Swabhava, the inherent constitution and essence of the soul and is not to be supposed as generated in the Soul through the action of anything else.
The concept of moksha in Indian thought represents an extreme form of the urge to get away from fact.
The only route to moksha is through dharma , since freedom is seen, on this view, not as presupposition of action but as the culmination of life . It requires a switch in thinking to be able to regard freedom as in opposition to responsibility – freedom being attained after responsibilities are over (on the extreme form of the theory as against jivanmukti form)
moksha is the ultimate goal of the Hindu religious life. moksha is called Mukti by the yogis, Nirvana by the Buddhists , and the Kingdom of heaven by the Christians .
He who has no enemy , and is friendly and compassionate towards all, who is free from the feelings of 'me and mine', even-minded in pain and pleasure , and forbearing these and other epithets of like nature are for him whose one goal in life is moksha.