On the advent of Buddhism , Dharma was entirely neglected, and the path of Moksha alone became predominant.
The ultimate goal of human life is to attain spiritual perfection (moksha), or freedom from transmigration of the atman . The social existence of an individual is means for attaining this supreme goal. Since an individual cannot attain moksha without fulfilling his (her) individual and social duties, responsibilities and obligations, Hindu social philosophy...includes the essential social principles and practices, goals of human life: dharma (moral law), artha (wealth), kama (pleasure), and moksha (spiritual perfection, the ultimate goal).
Hinduism takes a comprehensive view of the human condition and classifies all the things people seek in the world and beyond into four broad categories called purushaarthas, kama , artha, dharma and moksha.
To attain moksha while alive, the individual consciousness must become non-existent because then there is nothing left in the mind . Then, due to the attainment of moksha, he becomes immersed forever in Pure Consciousness and the Liberated. One must live out his Dharma for the sake of others.
Man, the period of whose life is one hundred years, should practise Dharma , Artha, and Kama at different times and in such a manner that they may harmonize, and not clash in any way. He should acquire learning in his childhood; in his youth and middle age he should attend to Artha and Kama, and in his old age he should perform Dharma, and thus seek to gain moksha , that is, release from further transmigration.
moksha or Emancipation is not a product or effect of any action. That which is the product of anything is bound to be non-permanent ( anitya ) and as moksha is permanent and eternal , it cannot be supposed to be the resultant of anything; it is the realization of the self as it is by its nature, and this becomes possible only when the Karma of the Jiva has been exhausted.
Liberation or moksha for much Vedantic thought was not something that can be “reached” or “acquired". Since the atman is already there as the fundamental essence of the self is merely there to be experienced.
For Shankara , the path of jnana-yoga was the only one to moksha.
Although there are various views among the Hindu thinkers regarding the content of moksha, all systems agree that moksha is the liberation of the soul from the bondage of flesh and the limitations of the finite body .
The fourth goal of life is moksha, which means “release” from life, particularly from the cycle of death and rebirth . This goal is best practiced in the retirement and renouncer stages of life, although it can be sought in all stages of life, particularly in the two paths of deeds and devotion .
The highest goal to be achieved by any human being is moksha, which means liberation from bondage . Bondage means that state where one always thinks in terms of ‘I’ and ‘mine’. In this state of ‘I’ and ‘mine’ one experiences worries , misery , lack of peace, a feeling of lacking something and a feeling of utter failure or worthlessness.
Two hypotheses have been formulated to the concept of moksha: One is the fear of death that might have given rise to the concept of moksha and the other is the unjust state of affairs.
The ancient man's fear of death and his way of tackling it might have given rise to the idea of moksha with the concept getting more and more refined down the centuries.
The concept of moksha might have originated depending on how the humans tackled the problem of injustice and pessimism .
The Upanishadic conception of moksha consists in the removal of 'all fetters' which is avidyais and in the consequent awakening of the spirit to the true self which is non-different from brahman , The Absolute.
moksha does not mean any actual change in the nature of the self, but it means a change in standpoint. In other words, moksha is not merely knowing brahman , rather, it is being brahman. This being brahman is moksha in its positive sense.
In its negative sense, moksha means moksha from bondage...this moksha from bondage is to be attained through knowledge .
If we die , shall we cease to live ? The widespread belief in the immortality of soul and therefore the belief in moksha are problematic for the philosopher .
If the immortality of soul is not beyond doubt, the existence of moksha cannot logically be proved either.
One of the universally accepted ideas regarding the relationship between moksha and Indian philosophy is that Indian philosophy is spiritual and that moksha is its main concern - it is the focal concern.
Our belief in moksha is very ancient existing years before the christian era...moksha is a pre-Aryna concept found in Sramana culture and later got assimilated in the Upanishads .
The relationship between moksha and the Indian philosophy is not integral in the sense that the one is not intelligible without the other.
The ideal of moksha was achieved in India as early as the Upanishadic and Buddhist times, whereas, philosophic reflection has not stopped with it; it has continued till today.
There are many philosophers and schools of philosophy in India that have literally nothing to do with moksha. The Nyaya , the Vaisesika, and the Mimamsa are predominant in this group. And, even those who are partly concerned with moksha, are concerned with it primarily in a philosophical manner only.
The term moksha is also used in Buddhism and Jainism, and is similar in concept of nirvana in Buddhism. Ancient materialistic schools denied the concept of moksha, while the twentieth century philosopher Sri Aurobindo believed that the goal of life was not moksha, but evolution to a higher state.
The only route to moksha is through dharma , since freedom is seen, on this view, not as presupposition of action but as the culmination of life . It requires a switch in thinking to be able to regard freedom as in opposition to responsibility – freedom being attained after responsibilities are over (on the extreme form of the theory as against jivanmukti form)
moksha is the ultimate goal of the Hindu religious life. moksha is called Mukti by the yogis, Nirvana by the Buddhists , and the Kingdom of heaven by the Christians .
He who has no enemy , and is friendly and compassionate towards all, who is free from the feelings of 'me and mine', even-minded in pain and pleasure , and forbearing these and other epithets of like nature are for him whose one goal in life is moksha.
According to Buddhist world view, moksha consists in overcoming the causes of suffering and ultimately in freeing oneself from the process of rebirth. How to do it? This is to be done through meditative introspection and by following the eightfold path ( marga ) of ethics .
moksha is described as the positive state of absolute bliss, the state of absolute absence of pain , the state of neither pleasure nor pain, communion with God or the company of God, the realization of the true nature of the self, an experience obtainable even in our embodied state, obtainable only after our physical death, etc.