... the concept of effeminacy is employed throughout the Iliad in order to create an ‘other’ against which epic masculinity can be defined. Although the presentation of the effeminised male ( hypothetical oractual) is often ambiguous and multifaceted, an examination of effeminacy and masculine ‘otherness’, within the context of the gender dynamics of the epic, has important implications for an understanding of the construction of masculinity.
The earliest full-length account of a chariot race appears in Book xxiii of the Iliad.richard arnold epstein
From another side: is Achilles possible with powder and lead? Or the Iliad with the printing press, not to mention the printing machine? Do not the song and saga of the muse necessarily come to an end with the printer's bar, hence do not the necessary conditions of epic poetry vanish?karl marx
Actualised or hypothetical effeminacy is constructed in the Iliad in order to define, by contrast , a ‘proper’ masculinity, founded on concepts of martial fortitude and civic responsibility, thoroughly antithetical to the ‘other’ which the effeminised male symbolizes.
A Iliad poem ?h me! You boasters, you women , no longer men, of Achaia! Indeed this will be a matter for reproach , and shameful above all shame ,if none of the Danaans will now go face to face against Hektor.
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