The Imperial Gazetteer of India reported the intensification of the urban character of Madras in the early twentieth century, noting that 30 percent of the city’s population was between the ages of twenty and forty and that the sex ratio was 98/100.
Early leadership of the Indian National Congress, and its forerunner, the Hindu Mahajana Sabha, was based in Madras and the city had hosted early meetings of these organizations. The high-caste residents of Madras were also prominently represented in the Home Rule League, a Gandhian organization with strong ties to the Theosophical Society, Headquartered on an estate in Adyar, about 9 km south of the city’s urban core.
Slung along the banks of the wide Mandovi River, Panaji (also still widely known by its former Portuguese name Panjim), Goa’s small and spritely state capital since 1843, boasts its own laid-back brand of originality. Purpose-built neat and tidy by its former Portuguese colonisers, the city’s inhabitants have adapted its European-flavoured legacy to suit their affluent and easygoing needs.
The city’s architecture is the surest sign that Goa evolved independently of the rest of India. In the small old quarters of Fontainhas and Sao Tomé, winding alleyways are lined with Portuguese-style houses, boasting distinctive red-tiled roofs, wooden window shutters and rickety balconies decorated with bright pots of petunias.
Calm soul of all things! make it mine To feel, amid the city’s jar, That there abides a peace of thine, Man did not make, and cannot mar.Matthew Arnold
“The whole of modern so-called civilised existence is an attempt to deny reality insofar as it exists. When did Don last look at the stars, when did Norman last get soaked in a rainstorm? The stars as far as these people are concerned are the Manhattan-pattern!” He jerked his thumb at a window beyond which the city’s treasure-house of coloured light glimmered gaudily.john brunner
’Twas on a sunny summer day I trod a mighty city’s street, And when I started on my way My heart was full of fancies sweet; But soon, as nothing could be seen, But countenances sharp and keen, Nought heard or seen around but told Of something bought or something sold, And none that seemed to think or care That any save himself was there.arthur hugh clough
Until the beginning of the twentieth century most of Ahmedabad’s population resided within the Fort Walls [on the eastern bank of the Sabaramati River. The opening of the first Ahmedabad textile mill in 1861 and of the railway line between Ahmedabad and Bombay [now Mumbai] three years was a harbinger of the city’s rapid expansion. The developing textile industry generated waves of migration into the city and extensive growth of its population and territory.
An integral part of old Bhopal culture are the eunuchs , who are intrinsic to the city’s public spaces and can still be seen roaming the streets and joining every major celebration.
...the city’s character alternated with Buddhism , Jainism , Shaivism , and Vaishnavism – religions which found a home in Bhubaneswar at one time or another with the changing dynasties of Kalinga, the ancient name for Orissa . The presence of different religions gave Bhubaneswar its pluralistic character, but not without making the Oriya people suspicious of outsiders;m and it also gave Bhubaneshar its definite religious character, which has endured into the present.
In its long history Delhi has been on several occasions the victim of military occupation accompanied by pillage and rapine, and these occasions have sometimes altered the course of the city’s fortunes, both materially and culturally. One such occasion was its capture by Qutubuddin Aibak on behalf of Sultan Muizud-Din Muhammad-ibn-Sam of Ghur in 1192 or 1193. Others, much later, were Nader Shah’s capture of the city in 1739, followed by its occupation by Ahamd Shah Durrani, the British in 1803, and the destruction which accompanied the uprising of 1857 and its suppression.
The city’s former name, Trivandrum, was given by the British and is a contraction of Thiruvananthapuram, its ancient name that was adopted again in the early 21st century. It is the site of the University of Kerala (1937) and its affiliated colleges and technical schools. It also has a museum, zoological gardens, an observatory, and an art gallery.
His fertility cycles meant little to him. In his lifetime, he knew, he might make only one or two real contributions to the City’s genetic continuity, his viral gametes combining with others in the bodies of the night feeders to become morphologically active. It was abstractly pleasing, though, to realize he had cast his own essence into the ocean of probability, where it might come floating back unknown to him, as a fresh citizen with new and unique ideas and odors.robert charles wilson
Critics of the name change favoured the retention of “Madras” and took the incoherence of its spatial form and built environment as their point of departure. Instead of treating these qualities as sins of lack, however, they celebrated them as artifacts of the city’s origins as a colonial port and its status as the ground zero of Indian modernity.
The mighty river flowing dark and deep, With ebb and flood from the remote sea-tides, Vague-sounding through the City’s sleepless sleep, Is named the River of the Suicides.james thomson