While [European] national cultures were concocted to distinguish one economic unit of capital from another, civilizational thinking was invented to unify these cultures against their colonial consequences. Islamic, Indian, or African civilizations were invented contrapuntally by Orientalism …in order to match, balance and thus authenticate ‘Western Civilization’.
Although “Madraspatnam” emerged as a new political entity, some of the towns and villages encased by its limits had genealogies extending into the Greco-Roman period, and other had monuments to authenticate claims of Pallava (650-1100) and Chola (850-1350) rule .
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