I believe that there is a necessary connection in both directions between the physical and the mental, but that it cannot be discovered a priori. Opinion is strongly divided on the credibility of some kind of functionalist reductionism, and I won't go through my reasons for being on the antireductionist side of that debate. Despite significant attempts by a number of philosophers to describe the functional manifestations of conscious mental states, I continue to believe that no purely functionalist characterization of a system entails simply in virtue of our mental concepts that the system is conscious.
Systems theory is antireductionist; it asserts that no system can be adequately understood or totally explained once it has been broken down into its component partsCharles Zastrow (2009) Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare: Empowering People. p.49
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